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4 Concepts

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4.1 Introduction and table of contents

4.1.1 Introduction

This clause describes key concepts in this part of ISO/IEC 14772. This includes describing the various components of the browser and how the interactions with the browser may be consummated. It does not define what the individual interactions are. Those descriptions can be found in 6 Services reference.

4.1.2 Table of contents

See Table 4.1 for the table of contents for this clause.

Table 4.1 Table of contents

4.1 Introduction and table of contents 
 4.1.1 Introduction 
 4.1.2 Table of contents 

4.2 Overview 

4.3 Implementation dependencies 

4.4 Interface components 
 4.4.1 Concepts 
 4.4.2 Application 
 4.4.3 Session 
 4.4.4 Browser 
 4.4.5 Node 
 4.4.6 Field

4.5 Events 
 4.5.1 Concepts 
 4.5.2 Internal to browser 
 4.5.3 Browser to external application 
  4.5.3.1 Overview 
  4.5.3.2 Initialize 
  4.5.3.3 Shutdown 
  4.5.3.4 No URLs available 
  4.5.3.5 Connection lost 

4.6 Identifiers 

4.7 Relative URLs 

4.8 Execution model 
 4.8.1 Updating the scene graph 
 4.8.2 Synchronizing multiple applications 
 4.8.3 Service guarantees

 

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4.2 Overview

An application may interact with a VRML scene graph through use of the interface defined in this part of ISO/IEC 14772. This interface is a protocol for manipulating the VRML scene graph while not directly part of the scene graph itself.

This specification is aimed at providing a language neutral representation of all actions that can be performed by an external application across this interface. Bindings to specific languages are defined in the annexes. The EAI forms this interface by giving access to the top-level named nodes in the system to the external environment. Top level named nodes are those nodes at the outermost layer of name scope which have an associated DEF name. The interface mimics the access of the Script node with a reference to the named node. To facilitate the sending of events to the external environment, a new mechanism is made available. To receive notification when an event is sent to an eventOut, the external environment registers interest in it. This mechanism is similar in concept to the processEvents functionality in ISO/IEC 14772-1, but differs due to the asynchronous nature of the external environment.

Conceptually, the External Authoring Interface allows four types of access into the VRML scene:

As with scripts within the VRML scene, the EAI allows access to the full functionality of the Browser Script Interface defined in ISO/IEC 14772-1. Browser state can be queried, routes can be added and deleted, and new nodes can be created. The EAI extends the basic browser interface with a number of extra capabilities including retrieving node references and registering interest in browser events.

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4.3 Implementation dependencies

Implementation dependence is defined in terms of the language binding or protocol encoding of the services defined in this specification. If a service is defined to be implementation dependent, it is a requirement of each binding and encoding to specify how that service is to be implemented, if at all.

Bindings and encodings to these services may define their own implementation dependent parts within that specification.

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4.4 Interface components

4.4.1 Concepts

There are three main items in a VRML browser that can be accessed from an external application: The browser, nodes within the scene graph, and fields within nodes. The definition and specifications are framed in terms of services. A VRML browser exposes a set of services which allow external applications to interact with it.

4.4.2 Application

An application is the external process that is not implicitly part of the VRML browser. This application makes some form of connection to the VRML browser along which requests are made of the browser. The application does not exist as part of the VRML browser as defined in ISO/IEC 14772-1 Figure 4.1 nor forms part of the ISO/IEC 14772-1 4.10.3 VRML execution model. An application may reside on another machine from the VRML browser.

4.4.3 Session

A session defines the life of a single connection between the application and the VRML browser. It is possible for a single browser to be servicing multiple sessions simultaneously. It is also possible that a single application may contain a number of separate sessions to multiple browsers. Multiple simultaneous sessions between external applications and multiple VRML browsers is permissible. However, individual implementations may place some restrictions on such multiple simultaneous sessions.

A session is not an implementable part of this specification. It is purely a conceptual mechanism by which the services can make requests for services. It may exist prior to any connection being established between a browser and external application or is established simultaneously with the request for a browser connection.

4.4.4 Browser

The browser is the basic encapsulation mechanism for an active VRML scene graph (that is one where time is progressing - not as a file stored on disk). As it contains the entire scene graph,  it also provides a core set of capabilities for dynamically manipulating that scene graph at a coarse level. For example, new content may be dynamically generated from a string of characters.

A user may have many VRML browsers running simultaneously on their machine. Therefore, each browser shall be represented by a unique identifier within that session. This identifier is required to be identical for multiple requests of a single browser instance. This is to enable two applications that have access to the one browser instance to share information in an unambiguous way.

Any action that requires use of the browser functionality shall identify the service request with a browser identifier.

4.4.5 Node

The smallest unit of interaction with the elements in the scene graph is the node. A node is equivalent to the VRML nodes that are defined in ISO/IEC 14772-1. A node can be removed as a unit from the scene graph, stored and then re-inserted at another position at some later time in the same session without detrimental effect.

Each node is defined by a unique identifier. This identifier is unique for that session. That is, it is possible that a single browser may be servicing multiple applications simultaneously and therefore all node identifiers are unique and invariant for the life of the session. This allows two external applications to potentially share data between themselves unambiguously and still have either make service requests of the browser with that shared data.

It is not possible to directly manipulate a node's properties as separate entities to the node itself.

Most operations in the EAI begin by obtaining a reference to a node. To reference a node it must be named using the DEF construct. Once a reference is obtained, the eventIns and eventOuts of that node can be accessed. Since an exposedField implicitly contains an eventIn and an eventOut, these are accessible as well using the field name or with the set_ and _changed modifiers.

Node identifiers may also be used to represent an empty node. An empty SFNode or MFNode field value is represented by a NULL value. For empty MFNode fields, the count of available nodes shall be zero when the field value is NULL.

4.4.6 Field

Individual fields are within nodes. While it is not possible to directly manipulate a node, a field is the method of direct manipulation of individual properties.

The access granted to individual fields is defined by Part 1 of this standard. For example, it is not possible to change the value of a "field" field. "exposedField"s may have values written to them and values read from them. A field is assigned a field identifier. This is non-unique and requires a node identifier plus the field identifier to specify a particular field with which to interact.

Fields may be read or written at any time during the course of the session. An application may register and unregister to receive notification of when values of the field changes. During the registration process the application can supply a token that will be returned along with the data value of the event. This token can be used by the application to uniquely identify this event in cases where events are not implicitly unique. The token is not required to be passed along with the service request and may be kept as part of the internals of the implementation on the application interface.

Any eventOut of a node to which the application has a reference can be read. The value read is the last value sent to that eventOut or the default value for that eventOut type if no event has ever been sent. The data read is specific to the field type of that eventOut and is formatted appropriate to the language or protocol used.

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4.5 Events

4.5.1 Concepts

Any transient variant data is carried around the VRML scene graph through the use of events. The application may register to receive events from the VRML scene graph, and may initiate new events. Events are considered transient and generated only at the time when the specific action occurs. Events shall not be stored and have the delivery deferred to parties who have not expressed interest in the event at the time it occurred. For example an application that connects to a browser after the world has loaded shall not be delivered an Initialize event.

4.5.2 Internal to browser

In many cases, fields and events are used interchangeably as terms to describe the changing of the properties of a field. In this specification, there is a difference.

An application may write a value to a field or read a value from a field. This value does not become an event until that value is internally represented within the VRML browser. The border of the browser to the application is where an event stops. Events cannot exist externally from the VRML browser; that is, the application cannot be inserted in the middle of an event cascade. The application may be notified of events, initiate new events, but cannot process and pass on events while holding up processing of the current timestamp event cascades within the browser when it is notified of an event.

4.5.3 Browser to external application

4.5.3.1 Overview

The browser may directly communicate to external applications with its own set of events. These events are used to indicate the status of the browser or of some asynchronous problem. The number and type of events available shall be implementation dependent. At a minimum, the following events shall be provided in all implementations of this specification.

Event delivery from the browser to the external application shall be guaranteed.

4.5.3.2 Initialize

The initialize event is used to indicate that the browser has had a world loaded where it has run through the initialization process (where the browser has loaded the world and just before it is about to issue its first time-related event). At this point in time, node identifiers shall be available from the getNode service of the browser (see 6.3.15, getNode).

The initialize event shall be generated immediately at the browser and delivered to the application. The event is considered to be asynchronous. That is, the delivery of the event (and any implementation dependent acknowledgement scheme) shall not delay the browser in starting the execution model evaluation.

4.5.3.3 Shutdown

The shutdown event is used to indicate that the browser is about to stop running the world. This may occur under a number of different conditions: The world is being replaced (See 6.3.14, replaceWorld and 6.3.12, loadURL), the browser itself is exiting, or the client application has disposed of its connection to the browser (see 6.3.4, Dispose).

The shutdown event shall be generated immediately at the browser and delivered to the application. The event is considered to be asynchronous. That is, the delivery of the event (and any implementation dependent acknowledgement scheme) shall not delay the browser in halting the execution model evaluation and closing down of the browser resources except where needed to ensure the delivery of the event to the application.

4.5.3.4 No URLs available

The no URL event is used to notify the application that the browser was not able to load any of the URL/URNs in one of the asynchronous invocations of the loadURL service (See 6.3.12, loadURL) or the createVrmlFromString service (see 6.3.3, createVrmlFromURL) indicating that no valid content was able to be loaded from any of the URLs specified in these calls. Other calls that may involve other asynchronous loads such as replaceWorld (see 6.3.14, replaceWorld) and createVrmlFromString (see 6.3.2, createVrmlFromString) may also use this event to indicate loading problems for items such as Inlines and EXTERNPROTOs although it shall not be required and shall be implementation dependent.

4.5.3.5 Connection lost

The connection lost error is used to notify the application that the underlying implementation has lost the connection between the browser and the application that would result in service requests not being able to be honoured. An example would be a TCP network connection timing out or other similar problem.

An implementation may delay sending an event that the connection has been lost if it implements some automatic reconnection attempt. It shall only be sent at the point where it is deemed no longer possible to connect to the browser. There shall be no requirement for the implementation to attempt to re-establish the connection after this event has been generated or to attempt any form of automatic reconnection capability.

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4.6 Identifiers

What constitutes an identifier is implementation dependent. In some cases it may be more efficient to represent a node identifier as the entire node which includes all field information. Requests for field information are then made on the local node. In other implementations an identifier may be only a simple integer. The job of ensuring unique identifiers is the sole responsibility of the browser such that applications may share data within reasonable constraints of the environment. The constraints on that environment may be specified as part of the individual implementation as defined in the attached appendicies.

It is not considered reasonable that two applications using different service implementations be able to exchange data outside of the browser environment.

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4.7 Relative URLs

ISO/IEC 14772-1 4.5.3 Relative URLs (RURL) defines the rules for dealing with relative URLs within a browser environment. The declaring file shall be defined as the base URL of the currently loaded world in the browser. The currently loaded world can be obtained by a request of the getWorldURL service(see 6.3.11, getWorldURL). In the case where a browser does not yet have a VRML file loaded, the base document directory shall be taken to be the current working directory of the browser. Where the browser is part of a web page, the current working directory shall be treated as the base URL of the page in which the web browser is embedded.

When nested relative URLs are generated (such as an EXTERNPROTO containing a reference to a script file) the top level RURL base is then resolved in accordance with  ISO/IEC 14772-1.

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4.8 Execution model

4.8.1 Updating the scene graph

A characteristic of external applications is that they will make a lot of changes in bursts to the VRML browser. It is also possible that a single browser may have a number of applications connected to it, all making requests of the browser.

Events can be batched to aid in performance of the application. The mechanism provided by this is a simple gate mechanism to hold all requests (beginUpdate) to update the currently loaded world until the gate is released (endUpdate).

When beginUpdate is invoked, all requests to modify the contents of the current world are buffered and not passed to the browser. This buffering effects all requests to modify the current world including calls to loadURL and replaceWorld. Once a call to beginUpdate has been made, any further beginUpdate requests are ignored until the next call to endUpdate at which time endUpdate releases all of the currently buffered updates to the browser for processing.

If a modification service request is made on the scene after an endUpdate and before a beginUpdate, it shall be passed to the scene immediately with the timestamp at the discretion of the browser.

beginUpdate/endUpdate requests shall be limited to the individual session. A request by one application to beginUpdate shall only buffer the requests made by that application and not any others that may be connected to that same browser instance.

When endUpdate is invoked, the following order of execution of requests shall be applied

  1. node setValues
  2. event cascade evaluation as per ISO/IEC 14772-1 4.10.3 Execution Model

loadURL/replaceWorld service requests are not affected by the update control process. As soon as the browser receives these requests their execution is begun. The service definitions define the complete behaviour of these requests.

Buffered requests from the application shall be processed before processing any more requests either through another buffered queue or individual requests.

4.8.2 Synchronizing multiple applications

When multiple applications make requests of the browser, the requests shall be serviced in order of arrival time at the browser. The browser shall determine the arrival time. Buffered updates to the scene graph shall have their arrival time determined to be at the time that endUpdate is requested. The arrival time is not necessarily the same as the timestamp at which the browser chooses to send events into the scene graph. The timestamp that the events are sent to the scene graph shall be determined by the browser but shall be no earlier than the time that endUpdate is requested. The arrival time is used to sort out conflicting requests from multiple applications to ensure consistent results in the application of events in the correct order.

Should the browser determine that two requests arrive simultaneously the result is implementation dependent. Note that it is permissible for the external applications to send new values to a given eventIn simultaneously. For such situations the browser shall obey ISO/IEC 14772-1 4.10.5 Fan-in and Fan-out.

Should the browser receive a request to loadURL or replaceWorld while currently processing a similar request, the old request is immediately terminated and the new one begun. See 6.3.14, replaceWorld and 6.3.12, loadURL for more information.

4.8.3 Service guarantees

All requests for services shall be guaranteed to be honoured where the underlying implementation supports that service. Once the application has made a service request, that request shall be transmitted to the browser assuming that a connection is still available. That is, all communications are assumed to be reliable. Delivery is not guaranteed if the connection between the browser and application has been broken (for example, a TCP connection fails). Implementations shall define an error condition that notifies the user that the connection has failed for each service request. Also, the browser interface may include an event that provides asynchronous notification to the user of the failure.

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